He attempted diligently, however, to fulfill his obligations to his new kingdom. A succession of European wars expanded his German domains during his lifetime; he was ratified as prince-elector of Hanover in 1708. https://www.britannica.com/biography/George-I-king-of-Great-Britain, Undiscovered Scotland - Biography of George I, The Home of the Royal Family - Biography of George I, George I - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), George I - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In 1710, George announced that he would succeed in Britain by hereditary right, as the right had been removed from the Stuarts, and he retained it. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14) George fought with distinction against the French. [13] His court in Hanover was graced by many cultural icons such as the mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz and the composers George Frideric Händel and Agostino Steffani. – geboren als Herzog Georg Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg – (* 28. It was widely assumed, even by Walpole for a time, that George II planned to remove Walpole from office but was prevented from doing so by his wife, Caroline of Ansbach. George I, in full George Louis, German Georg Ludwig, (born May 28, 1660, Osnabrück, Hanover [Germany]—died June 11, 1727, Osnabrück), elector of Hanover (1698–1727) and first Hanoverian king of Great Britain (1714–27). [51] In 1719 the South Sea Company proposed to take over £31 million (three fifths) of the British national debt by exchanging government securities for stock in the company. In 1708 they formally confirmed George's position as a Prince-Elector in recognition of, or because of, his service. Although the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1719 were readily suppressed, he was far from popular in England. After the election, the Whig-dominated Parliament passed the Septennial Act 1715, which extended the maximum duration of Parliament to seven years (although it could be dissolved earlier by the Sovereign). In response the English Parliament passed the Alien Act 1705, which threatened to restrict Anglo-Scottish trade and cripple the Scottish economy if the Estates did not agree to the Hanoverian succession. [50] Walpole and Townshend were reappointed as ministers the following year and a new, supposedly unified, Whig government formed. Juni 1727 greg. George's marriage to Sophia Dorothea was dissolved, not on the grounds that either of them had committed adultery, but on the grounds that Sophia Dorothea had abandoned her husband. Although he stopped attending Cabinet meetings, he met with key ministers in private—a step that led to the decline of the Cabinet, which had largely controlled the government during Queen Anne’s reign. In addition to his son and successor, George II, he had a daughter, Sophia Dorothea (1687–1757), wife of King Frederick William I of Prussia and mother of Frederick the Great. Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and mother, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. Towards the end of his reign, actual political power was held by Robert Walpole, now recognised as Britain's first de facto prime minister. [14] The likelihood of any of them converting to Protestantism for the sake of the succession was remote; some had already refused. The Parliament of Scotland (the Estates) had not formally settled the succession question for the Scottish throne. George remained Lutheran but was the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church) and the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian Church). 72, 90–96, Erleigh, pp. As a result, the Spanish and French thrones remained separate. The Jacobites were poorly equipped and were easily defeated by British artillery at the Battle of Glen Shiel. Unlike his predecessor, Queen Anne, George rarely attended meetings of the cabinet; most of his communications were in private, and he only exercised substantial influence with respect to British foreign policy. These rebel colonies would eventually band together to form the United States of America. [50], Greater problems arose over financial speculation and the management of the national debt. [3], For the first year of his life, George was the only heir to the German territories of his father and three childless uncles. The list of regents was opened, the members sworn in, and George was proclaimed King of Great Britain and Ireland. [82] John H. Plumb noted that: Some historians have exaggerated the king's indifference to English affairs and made his ignorance of the English language seem more important than it was. "This declaration was meant to scotch any Whig interpretation that parliament had given him the kingdom [and] ... convince the Tories that he was no usurper. [9], Sophia Dorothea had a second child, a daughter named after her, in 1687, but there were no other pregnancies. The Prince was told to leave the royal residence, St. James's Palace. [57] The company's success led to the speculative flotation of other companies, some of a bogus nature,[58] and the Government, in an attempt to suppress these schemes and with the support of the Company, passed the Bubble Act. [18], Shortly after George's accession in Hanover, the War of the Spanish Succession broke out. Updates? [4] Sophia bore Ernest Augustus another four sons and a daughter. Fifty-six Catholics with superior hereditary claims were bypassed. The invasion succeeded with few lives lost. [19], In 1706 the Elector of Bavaria was deprived of his offices and titles for siding with Louis against the Empire. He spoke not a word of English, and his slow, pedantic nature did not sit well with the English. [35], George's distrust of the Tories aided the passing of power to the Whigs. George I (1714-27) was magnificently unsuited to rule England. Juni 1660 greg. The following year, George was invested as an Imperial Field Marshal with command of the imperial army stationed along the Rhine. Back home in England, the formerly separate countries of Great Britain and Ireland were finally joined together to form the United Kingdom. The murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom, Don Nicolò Montalbano, was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest-paid minister. By the end of the year the rebellion had all but collapsed. [25], Whig politicians believed Parliament had the right to determine the succession, and to bestow it on the nearest Protestant relative of the Queen, while many Tories were more inclined to believe in the hereditary right of the Catholic Stuarts, who were nearer relations. [34], Within a year of George's accession the Whigs won an overwhelming victory in the general election of 1715. Though both England and Scotland recognised Anne as their queen, only the English Parliament had settled on Sophia, Electress of Hanover, as the heir presumptive. By contrast in Great Britain, George had to govern through Parliament. [37] Thus Whigs already in power could remain in such a position for a greater period of time. As a reward, the prior Hanoverian annexation of the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg by George's uncle was recognised by the British and Dutch. [15], In August 1701 George was invested with the Order of the Garter and, within six weeks, the nearest Catholic claimant to the thrones, the former king James II, died. Some disgruntled Tories sided with a Jacobite rebellion, which became known as "The Fifteen". The English Parliament’s Act of Settlement (1701), seeking to ensure a Protestant succession to the throne in opposition to the exiled Roman Catholic claimant (James Edward, the Old Pretender), made George third in line for the throne after Princess Anne (queen from 1702–14) and his mother. Sophia was the granddaughter of King James I of England through her mother, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia. As part of the war effort, George invaded his neighbouring state, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, which was pro-French, writing out some of the battle orders himself. Cynical and selfish, as he was, he was better than a king out of St. Germains [James, the Stuart Pretender] with the French king's orders in his pocket, and a swarm of Jesuits in his train.[81]. At issue was the right of Philip, the grandson of King Louis XIV of France, to succeed to the Spanish throne under the terms of King Charles II of Spain's will. [38], After his accession in Great Britain, George's relationship with his son (which had always been poor) worsened. [45] The clansmen dispersed into the Highlands, and the Spaniards surrendered. George married his cousin Sophia Dorothea of Celle in 1682, but in 1694, accusing her of infidelity, he divorced her and imprisoned her in the castle of Ahlden, where she died 32 years later. Born in Hanover to its Elector Ernest Augustus and Electress Sophia, George inherited the titles and lands of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg from his father and uncles. After the rebellion was defeated, although there were some executions and forfeitures, George acted to moderate the Government's response, showed leniency, and spent the income from the forfeited estates on schools for Scotland and paying off part of the national debt. [27] She suffered a stroke, which left her unable to speak, and died on 1 August 1714. In 1718 the Holy Roman Empire was added to the body, which became known as the Quadruple Alliance. He was the first British monarch of the House of Hanover. [47], In 1715 when the Whigs came to power, George's chief ministers included Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Townshend (Walpole's brother-in-law), Lord Stanhope and Lord Sunderland. Jacobites attempted, but failed, to depose George and replace him with James Francis Edward Stuart, Anne's Catholic half-brother. Naturally, George formed a predominantly Whig ministry. [12] Melusine von der Schulenburg acted as George's hostess openly from 1698 until his death, and they had three daughters together, born in 1692, 1693 and 1701. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [63] In 1721 Lord Stanhope, though personally innocent,[64][65] collapsed and died after a stressful debate in the House of Lords, and Lord Sunderland resigned from public office. In February 1716, facing defeat, James and Lord Mar fled to France. In the ensuing scandal it became apparent that George and his mistresses had taken part in South Sea Company transactions of questionable legality, but Walpole’s skill in handling the House of Commons saved the king from disgrace. He swiftly revised the membership of the Regency Council that would take power after Anne's death, as it was known that Anne's health was failing and politicians in Britain were jostling for power. Their mother was absent for almost a year (1664–65) during a long convalescent holiday in Italy, but corresponded regularly with her sons' governess and took a great interest in their upbringing, even more so upon her return. [32], As King his arms were: Quarterly, I, Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England) impaling Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); II, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France); III, Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); IV, tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westphalia), overall an escutcheon Gules charged with the crown of Charlemagne Or (for the dignity of Archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire). Ernest Augustus died on 23 January 1698, leaving all of his territories to George with the exception of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück, an office he had held since 1661. He was more than fifty years of age when he came amongst us: we took him because we wanted him, because he served our turn; we laughed at his uncouth German ways, and sneered at him. George died of a stroke on a trip to Hanover. They pushed several of the king’s friends out of office, and by 1724 George had come to rely completely on their judgment. He was the eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. [16] However, it was George who understood the complexities of English politics and constitutional law, which required further acts in 1705 to naturalise Sophia and her heirs as English subjects, and to detail arrangements for the transfer of power through a Regency Council. She was eventually won over by the advantages inherent in the marriage. [80] However, in mainland Europe, he was seen as a progressive ruler supportive of the Enlightenment who permitted his critics to publish without risk of severe censorship, and provided sanctuary to Voltaire when the philosopher was exiled from Paris in 1726. He is the most recent British monarch to be buried outside the United Kingdom. Gibbs, G. C. (September 2004; online edn, January 2006), Carswell, p. 104; Hatton, p. 249 and Williams, p. 176, Carswell, pp. Shortly after George's accession to his paternal duchy, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, who was second-in-line to the English and Scottish thrones, died. Sophia became heiress presumptive to the new Queen of England. [32] A clause in the Act of Settlement that forbade the British monarch from leaving the country without Parliament's permission was unanimously repealed in 1716. [53] The Company enticed bondholders to convert their high-interest, irredeemable bonds to low-interest, easily tradeable stocks by offering apparently preferential financial gains. [8], In 1683 George and his brother Frederick Augustus served in the Great Turkish War at the Battle of Vienna, and Sophia Dorothea bore George a son, George Augustus. [66] Through Walpole's skilful management of Parliament, George managed to avoid direct implication in the Company's fraudulent actions. In 1717 Townshend was dismissed, and Walpole resigned from the Cabinet over disagreements with their colleagues;[48] Stanhope became supreme in foreign affairs, and Sunderland the same in domestic matters. ", This page was last edited on 4 November 2020, at 13:53. Perhaps his own mother summed him up when "explaining to those who regarded him as cold and overserious that he could be jolly, that he took things to heart, that he felt deeply and sincerely and was more sensitive than he cared to show. As Sophia, Electress of Hanover, had died two months before Queen Anne's death in August 1714, Sophia's eldest son George, Elector of Hanover, inherited the throne under the Act of Settlement of 1701. . He introduced a Peerage Bill that attempted to limit the size of the House of Lords by restricting new creations. George's life and reign were re-explored by scholars such as Beattie and Hatton, and his character, abilities and motives re-assessed in a more generous light. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [67] Claims that George had received free stock as a bribe[68] are not supported by evidence; indeed receipts in the Royal Archives show that he paid for his subscriptions and that he lost money in the crash. But upon Louis XIV's death in 1715, Philip sought to overturn the treaty. At first Royal Assent was withheld, but the following year Anne capitulated to the wishes of the Estates and assent was granted to the bill, which became the Act of Security 1704. George was born on 28 May 1660 in the city of Hanover in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire. Mai jul. [77] Though he was unpopular in Great Britain due to his supposed inability to speak English, such an inability may not have existed later in his reign as documents from that time show that he understood, spoke and wrote English. 147–155 and Williams, p. 177, Erleigh, p. 129; Hatton, p. 255 and Williams, p. 176, Black, pp. In 1717 he contributed to the creation of the Triple Alliance, an anti-Spanish league composed of Great Britain, France and the Dutch Republic. Nevertheless, he often found it difficult to get his way in domestic politics, in which he had to deal with such strong-willed ministers as Robert Walpole (later earl of Orford), James Stanhope, and Viscount Charles Townshend. Omissions? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... There’s a first time for everything—and there’s a lot of everything across all of history. [11] However, sources in Hanover itself, including Sophia, denied any knowledge of Königsmarck's whereabouts.[10]. He suffered a stroke on the road between Delden and Nordhorn on 9 June 1727,[73] and was taken by carriage to the Prince-Bishop's palace at Osnabrück[e] where he died in the early hours before dawn on 11 June 1727. George did not hold Marlborough's actions against him; he understood they were part of a plan to lure French forces away from the main attack.[20]. George's father took him hunting and riding, and introduced him to military matters; mindful of his uncertain future, Ernest Augustus took the fifteen-year-old George on campaign in the Franco-Dutch War with the deliberate purpose of testing and training his son in battle. George was born on 28 May 1660 in the city of Hanover in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire, the United Dutch Provinces, England, Hanover and many other German states opposed Philip's right to succeed because they feared that the French House of Bourbon would become too powerful if it also controlled Spain. The subsequent War of the Quadruple Alliance involved the same issue as the War of the Spanish Succession. [36] Whig dominance grew to be so great under George that the Tories did not return to power for another half-century. [23] Eventually, in 1707, both Parliaments agreed on an Act of Union, which united England and Scotland into a single political entity, the Kingdom of Great Britain, and established the rules of succession as laid down by the Act of Settlement 1701. 61–62, Kilburn, Matthew (2004; online edition January 2008), Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover), Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal, Sophia von Kielmansegg, Countess of Darlington, (Petronilla) Melusina von der Schulenburg, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, Albrecht Wolfgang, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe, Clara Elisabeth von Meyseburg-Züschen, Countess von Platen, Sophia Charlotte von Platen, later Countess of Darlington, Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, "Schulenburg, (Ehrengard) Melusine von der, suo jure duchess of Kendal and suo jure duchess of Munster (1667–1743)", "Petronilla Melusina Stanhope, suo jure countess of Walsingham, and countess of Chesterfield (1693–1778)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_I_of_Great_Britain&oldid=987035775, Burials at Berggarten Mausoleum, Herrenhausen (Hanover), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Arms of George I Louis as Elector-Designate of Hanover 1689–1708, Arms of George I Louis as Elector of Hanover 1708–1714, Coat of Arms of George I as King of Great Britain 1714–1727, Married 1706 Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg (later. Despite this, the German princes thought he had acquitted himself well. Certain government bonds could not be redeemed without the consent of the bondholder and had been issued when interest rates were high; consequently each bond represented a long-term drain on public finances, as bonds were hardly ever redeemed. "The Fifteen", however, was a dismal failure; Lord Mar's battle plans were poor, and James arrived late with too little money and too few arms. George Augustus, Prince of Wales, encouraged opposition to his father's policies, including measures designed to increase religious freedom in Britain and expand Hanover's German territories at Sweden's expense. Georg I. [76] European and British sources agree that George was reserved, temperate and financially prudent;[32] he disliked to be in the public light at social events, avoided the royal box at the opera and often travelled incognito to the house of a friend to play cards. [83], Yet the character of George I remains elusive; he was in turn genial and affectionate in private letters to his daughter, and then dull and awkward in public. George died of a stroke on a trip to his native Hanover, where he was buried. According to diplomatic sources from Hanover's enemies, in July 1694 the Swedish count was killed, possibly with George's connivance, and his body thrown into the river Leine weighted with stones. I, for one, would have been on his side in those days. His mother at first opposed the marriage because she looked down on Sophia Dorothea's mother, Eleonore (who came from lower nobility), and because she was concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status. im Leineschloss, Hannover, Fürstentum Calenberg; † 11. Writers of the nineteenth century, such as Thackeray, Sir Walter Scott and Lord Mahon, were reliant on biased first-hand accounts published in the previous century such as Lord Hervey's memoirs, and looked back on the Jacobite cause with romantic, even sympathetic, eyes. All government expenditure above 50 thalers (between 12 and 13 British pounds), and the appointment of all army officers, all ministers, and even government officials above the level of copyist, was in his personal control. [78] He certainly spoke fluent German and French, good Latin, and some Italian and Dutch. [3] His coronation was accompanied by rioting in over twenty towns in England. Spain supported a Jacobite-led invasion of Scotland in 1719, but stormy seas allowed only about three hundred Spanish troops to reach Scotland. [75] In subsequent reigns the power of the prime minister increased further at the expense of the power of the sovereign. George was succeeded by his son, George Augustus, who took the throne as George II. Philip was allowed to succeed to the Spanish throne but removed from the French line of succession, and the Elector of Bavaria was restored. When George’s mother died on June 8, 1714, he became heir to the throne, and on the death of Queen Anne (Aug. 1, 1714) the Whigs, who had just gained control of the government, ushered him into power. [84][85][86], In addition to Melusine von der Schulenburg, three other women were said to be George's mistresses:[90][91], King of Great Britain, Elector of Hanover, Throughout George's life, Great Britain used the, The story that George I died in the same room as that in which he was born at. [49], Lord Sunderland's power began to wane in 1719. He had little difficulty in communicating with his ministers in French, and his interest in all matters affecting both foreign policy and the court was profound. Under Salic law, where inheritance of territory was restricted to the male line, the succession of George and his brothers to the territories of their father and uncle now seemed secure. [24] The union created the largest free trade area in 18th-century Europe. George married his cousin Sophia Dorothea of Celle in 1682, but in 1694, accusing her of infidelity, he divorced her and imprisoned her in the castle of Ahlden, where she died 32 years later. George's prospects were now better than ever as the sole heir to his father's electorate and his uncle's duchy. George I er (né Georg Ludwig ; Hanovre, 28 mai 1660 – 11 juin 1727 [N 1], Osnabrück) fut roi de Grande-Bretagne du 1 er août 1714 jusqu'à sa mort. [22] The emperor's death in 1711 threatened to destroy the balance of power in the opposite direction, so the war ended in 1713 with the ratification of the Treaty of Utrecht. George I (George Louis; German: Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[a] was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 23 January 1698 until his death in 1727. The following year, Frederick Augustus was informed of the adoption of primogeniture, meaning he would no longer receive part of his father's territory as he had expected.

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